No prizes for having already guessed that there can also be a reason and an objection bearing on the same contention. The reason and objection are then countering each other; they are known as counter-arguments, relative to each other.
The Apollo rock samples are genuine Moon rock. They appear similar to terrestrial rocks on the surface, but chemically they are unlike anything on Earth. [Based on 9.1-3]
To be very precise, a counter-argument is not the reason or the objection itself. A counter-argument is an argument, and a simple argument is a complex thing made up of a reason with its contention, or an objection with its contention. So counter-arguments include the contention; and counterarguments overlap in the sense that they have the same contention. This is probably going to make more sense if you see it on a diagram:
|Two arguments which counter each other (and thus are counter-arguments). Note that each simple argument includes the contention. Thus, the two simple arguments overlap; the same contention is part of both of them.|
A counter-argument to a reason is an objection to that reason's contention, and vice versa.
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Last updated 28-Nov-2006